Majezik film tablet

Majezik Ağrı Kesici Kullanımı ve Yan Etkileri

Ağrılı bir güne uyanmak, zaman zaman pek çok kişinin başına gelen bir durumdur. Gün içinde halledilmesi gereken işler, bir yerden başka bir yere gidilmesi gereken durumlar baş veya kemik ağrısı yaşandığında daha da stresli bir süreç oluşturur. Sağlam ve dinç bir bedenle kendinizi hem daha iyi hissedebilirsiniz hem de keyifli bir günü de geride bırakırsınız. Bunun için bazen bir ilaca ihtiyacınız olabilir.

En ufak ağrılarda hemen etrafta bir ağrı kesici arayanlardansanız, bu alışkanlığınızı bir köşeye bırakmanın vakti geldi. Vücudunuzda oluşan herhangi bir ağrı, farklı bir hastalığın işareti olabileceği gibi yanlış ve bilinçsiz ilaç kullanımı, sizi daha kötü bir duruma sokabilir.

Dikkat!

Tüm ilaçların ve ağrı kesicilerin doktor kontrolünde alınması gerektiğinin önemle altını çiziyoruz.

Hemen hemen birçok kişinin kas ve eklem ağrısı yaşadığı günlerde almış olduğu “Majezik” ilacı hakkında bilgi vermek için buradayız. Bilinçli ve doğru ilaç kullanımı için sizlere Majezik prospektüs bilgilerini hazırladık. Majezik zararları var mıdır? Majezik fiyat bilgisi nedir? Majezik ağrı kesici hangi tür ağrılarda ve ne zaman kullanılmalı? Majezik muadili ilaçlar hangileri? Tüm cevaplar şimdi burada! Yazının en sonunda Majezik prospektüs bilgilerine de ulaşabilirsiniz.

ilacviki.com

Majezik side effects

See also:

Adverse Reactions in Pre-Marketing Clinical Trials Reported as related (definite: possible: probable) to Majezik Lozenges: Very common (>1/10), common (>1/100, <1/10), uncommon (>1/1,000, <1/100), rare (>1/10,000, <1/1,000).

Body as a Whole: Pain in the abdomen 2%.

Digestive System: Nausea 2.7%, diarrhoea 1.5%, dyspepsia 0.7%, vomiting 0.4%, flatulence 0.2%.

Nervous System: Headache 2.7%, dizziness 1.2%, somnolence 0.08%, insomnia 0.008%.

Skin: Rash 0.2%.

Special Sense: Warmth/burning in mouth 13.6%, tingling in mouth 3%, mouth ulcers 1%, dry mouth 1%.

Adverse Reactions Reported in Post-Marketing (clinical trials, spontaneous reports) associated with Majezik Lozenges 8.75 mg: Four post-marketing trials have been conducted in Europe, 2 of which elicited events in the over the counter setting. Taste related events were the most frequently reported (>1/10). Common events (>1/100, <1/10) were headache, abdominal pain, nausea and mouth ulcers.

Serious spontaneous adverse drug reactions have occurred in isolated cases, and include 1 report of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient also taking another NSAID, 2 reports of angioedema in the same aspirin sensitive patient and a single case of bronchospasm.

Adverse Reactions Reported with Majezik, Tablet Form (ie, at a Higher Dose and/or Longer Duration of the Treatment than is Indicated for the Majezik Lozenges): Skin reactions (including very rarely Stevens-Johnson syndrome and Lyell’s syndrome); rarely hypersensitivity (bronchospasm, dyspnoea, fever and very rarely anaphylactic shock); gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely ulceration and perforation; rarely ulcerative stomatitis; very rarely hepatic disorders (including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice); rarely renal dysfunction (including interstitial nephritis, nephritic syndrome and renal failure); rarely haematological reactions (including anaemia, prolonged bleeding time and very rarely thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia and haemolytic anaemia).

Oedema, hypertension and cardiac failure, have been reported in association with NSAID treatment.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (eg, myocardial infarction or stroke).

Применение

взрослым и детям в возрасте старше 15 лет — внутрь по 50–100 мг 2–3 раза в сутки.Рекомендуемая дозировка составляет 150–200 мг/сут.При обострении заболевания или острой боли. Рекомендованная дозировка может быть повышена до 300 мг/сут.При дисменорее. Сначала используют 100 мг с последующим приемом 50 мг или 100 мг каждые 4 или 6 ч. Наибольшая рекомендуемая дозировка не должна превышать 300 мг/сут.Пища значительно не влияет на всасывание лекарства, поэтому таблетки возможно использовать независимо от приема пищи.Срок лечения определяется врачом индивидуально в каждом конкретном случае.

Uses of Majezik in details

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This medication is used before certain types of eye surgery (such as cataract removal). It prevents the pupil of the eye from narrowing. This effect makes it easier for the doctor to examine the inside of the eye, to remove the cataract, and to replace it with a new lens. Majezik belongs to a class of drugs known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This medication may also be used after eye surgery to treat pain, swelling, and redness.

How to use Majezik ophthalmic

Apply the eye drops before surgery to the affected eye, usually every 30 minutes starting 2 hours before surgery (for a total of 4 drops), or as directed by your doctor. If you are directed to use this medication after eye surgery, follow your doctor’s instructions.

Do not wear contact lenses while you are using this medicine. Sterilize contact lenses according to the manufacturer’s directions, and check with your doctor before you begin using them again.

To apply eye drops, wash your hands first. To avoid contamination, do not touch the dropper tip or let it touch your eye or any other surface.

Tilt your head back, look upward, and pull down the lower eyelid to make a pouch. Hold the dropper directly over your eye and place 1 drop into the pouch. Look downward and gently close your eyes for 1 to 2 minutes. Place one finger at the corner of your eye (near the nose) and apply gentle pressure. This will prevent the medication from draining out. Try not to blink and do not rub your eye.

Do not rinse the dropper. Replace the dropper cap after each use.

If you are using another kind of eye medication (for example, other drops or ointments), wait at least 5 to 10 minutes before applying other medications. Use eye drops before eye ointments to allow the drops to enter the eye.

This medication is intended for short-term use only. Do not use this medication more often or for longer than prescribed because doing so may increase your risk of serious side effects.

Do not use this product if it becomes contaminated (for example, drops turn cloudy or a dark color). Use of contaminated eye medication can cause infection, serious damage to the eye, and loss of vision. Contact your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

If you are instructed to use this medication after eye surgery, tell your doctor if your symptoms persist or worsen.

Active ingredient matches for Majezik:

Flurbiprofen in Georgia, Turkey.

Sort by popularity
Unit description / dosage (Manufacturer) Price, USD
Majezic-Sanovel (Georgia)
Majezik-SR (Turkey)
Maprofen (Bosnia & Herzegowina)
Markes (Turkey)
Maxaljin (Georgia, Turkey)
Maxaljin-SR (Turkey)
Maximus (Turkey)
Maximus 30’s $ 4.91
Meiprofen (Taiwan)
Meiprofen 3.33 mg/1 g x 40 mg
Mentocaína Anti-Inflam (Portugal)
Merdex (Turkey)
MIGRID (CRESCENT)
MIGRID 10 MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Crescent Therapeutics Ltd) $ 0.58
MIGRID 5 MG TABLET 1 strip / 10 tablets each (Crescent Therapeutics Ltd) $ 0.31
Mirafen (Colombia)
Mobez (Pakistan)
Myprofen (Bulgaria)
Naplur (Pakistan)
Neliacan (Greece)
Neo Artrol (Spain)
Neo Borocillina Gola Dolore (Italy)
Neo Triad (Pakistan)
Neo-Angin dolo (Switzerland)
Netfen (Turkey)
Nibelon (Vietnam)
Nibelon 100 mg x 10 Blister x 10 Tablet
Nirolex Gola (Italy)
Novo-Flurprofen (Canada)
Tablet; Oral; Flurbiprofen 100 mg (Novopharm)
Tablet; Oral; Flurbiprofen 50 mg (Novopharm)
Novo-Flurprofen FC
Tablet; Oral; Flurbiprofen 100 mg
Tablet; Oral; Flurbiprofen 50 mg
Nu-Flurbiprofen
Tablet; Oral; Flurbiprofen 100 mg
Tablet; Oral; Flurbiprofen 50 mg
Ocufen (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, France, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Oman, Peru, Singapore, United Kingdom, United States)
Solution; Ophthalmic; Flurbiprofen Sodium 0.03% (Allergan)
2.5 milliliter in 1 bottle, plastic (Allergan)
Ocufen 0.03 % x 5 mL (Allergan)
Ocufen 0.03 % x 10 mL (Allergan)
Ocufen solution/ drops .3 mg/mL (Allergan)
Ocufen eent
Ocufen Unidose
Solution; Ophthalmic; Flurbiprofen Sodium 0.03%
Ocuflur (Germany, Greece, India, Luxembourg)
Drops; Ophthalmic; Flurbiprofen Sodium (Lumina (FDC Limited))
0.03 % w/v x 5ml (Lumina (FDC Limited)) $ 0.47
Ocuflur 0.03 % x 1 Bottle 5 mL (Lumina (FDC Limited))
Ocuflur 0.03% w/v EYE-DPS / 5ml (Lumina (FDC Limited)) $ 0.47
Ocuflur Eye 5 ml Drop (Lumina (FDC Limited)) $ 0.10

User reports

1 consumer reported useful

Was the Majezik drug useful in terms of decreasing the symptom or the disease?According to the reports released by ndrugs.com website users, the below mentioned percentages of users say the drug is useful / not useful to them in decreasing their symptoms/disease. The usefulness of the drug depends on many factors, like severity of the disease, perception of symptom, or disease by the patient, brand name used , other associated conditions of the patient. If the drug is not effective or useful in your case, you need to meet the doctor to get re-evaluated about your symptoms/disease, and he will prescribe an alternative drug.

Users %
Useful 1 100.0%

2 consumers reported price estimates

Was the price you paid to purchase the drug reasonable? Did you feel it was expensive?The below mentioned numbers have been reported by ndrugs.com website users about whether the Majezik drug is expensive or inexpensive. There is a mixed opinion among users. The rating about the cost of the drug depends on factors like which brand drug the patient purchased, how effective it was for the price paid, the country or place the drug is marketed, and the economic condition of the patient. The users who feel the drug is expensive can look for an alternative brand drug or a generic drug to save the cost.

Users %
Not expensive 2 100.0%

6 consumers reported time for results

To what extent do I have to use Majezik before I begin to see changes in my health conditions?As part of the reports released by ndrugs.com website users, it takes 1 day and a few days before you notice an improvement in your health conditions.Please note, it doesn’t mean you will start to notice such health improvement in the same time frame as other users. There are many factors to consider, and we implore you to visit your doctor to know how long before you can see improvements in your health while taking Majezik. To get the time effectiveness of using Majezik drug by other patients, please click here.

Users %
1 day 3 50.0%
1 week 2 33.3%
2 weeks 1 16.7%

24 consumers reported age

Users %
16-29 14 58.3%
30-45 5 20.8%
46-60 4 16.7%
6-15 1 4.2%
There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!

Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

How should I use Majezik?

Use Majezik drops as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

  • To use Majezik drops, wash your hands. Tilt your head back. Using your index finger, pull the lower eyelid away from the eye to form a pouch. Drop the medicine into the pouch and gently close your eyes. Immediately use your finger to apply pressure to the inside corner of the eye for 1 to 2 minutes. Do not blink. Remove excess medicine around your eye with a clean tissue, being careful not to touch your eye. Wash your hands to remove any medicine that may be on them.
  • To prevent germs from contaminating your medicine, do not touch the applicator tip to any surface, including your eye. Keep the container tightly closed.
  • Do not administer Majezik drops while wearing contact lenses. Talk to your doctor about the proper use of Majezik drops if you usually wear contact lenses.
  • If you will be using Majezik drops in both eyes, do not use the same bottle for both eyes. Doing so may increase the risk of passing an infection from one eye to the other.
  • If you miss a dose of Majezik drops, contact your doctor immediately.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Majezik drops.

Majezik contraindications

See also:

Hypersensitivity to Majezik, aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or to any of the excipients of Majezik.

Patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (eg, bronchospasm, asthma, rhinitis, angioedema, or urticaria) in response to aspirin or other NSAIDs.

Existing or history of peptic ulcerations/haemorrhage (≥2 distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

History of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAIDs therapy.

Severe heart failure, renal failure or hepatic failure.

Use in pregnancy: Whilst no teratogenic effects have been demonstrated in animal experiments, the use of Majezik, if possible, be avoided during the first 6 months of pregnancy.

During the 3rd trimester, Majezik is contraindicated as there is a risk of premature closure of the foetal ductus arteriosus with possible persistent pulmonary hypertension. The onset of labour may be delayed and the duration increased with an increased bleeding tendency in both mother and child.

Reviews

User reports

1 consumer reported useful

Was the Majezik drug useful in terms of decreasing the symptom or the disease?According to the reports released by ndrugs.com website users, the below mentioned percentages of users say the drug is useful / not useful to them in decreasing their symptoms/disease. The usefulness of the drug depends on many factors, like severity of the disease, perception of symptom, or disease by the patient, brand name used , other associated conditions of the patient. If the drug is not effective or useful in your case, you need to meet the doctor to get re-evaluated about your symptoms/disease, and he will prescribe an alternative drug.

Users %
Useful 1 100.0%

2 consumers reported price estimates

Was the price you paid to purchase the drug reasonable? Did you feel it was expensive?The below mentioned numbers have been reported by ndrugs.com website users about whether the Majezik drug is expensive or inexpensive. There is a mixed opinion among users. The rating about the cost of the drug depends on factors like which brand drug the patient purchased, how effective it was for the price paid, the country or place the drug is marketed, and the economic condition of the patient. The users who feel the drug is expensive can look for an alternative brand drug or a generic drug to save the cost.

Users %
Not expensive 2 100.0%

6 consumers reported time for results

To what extent do I have to use Majezik before I begin to see changes in my health conditions?As part of the reports released by ndrugs.com website users, it takes 1 day and a few days before you notice an improvement in your health conditions.Please note, it doesn’t mean you will start to notice such health improvement in the same time frame as other users. There are many factors to consider, and we implore you to visit your doctor to know how long before you can see improvements in your health while taking Majezik. To get the time effectiveness of using Majezik drug by other patients, please click here.

Users %
1 day 3 50.0%
1 week 2 33.3%
2 weeks 1 16.7%

24 consumers reported age

Users %
16-29 14 58.3%
30-45 5 20.8%
46-60 4 16.7%
6-15 1 4.2%
There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!

Information checked by Dr. Sachin Kumar, MD Pharmacology

Majezik dosage

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Majezik (Majezik) and other treatment options before deciding to use Majezik (Majezik). Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.

After observing the response to initial therapy with Majezik (Majezik), the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, the recommended starting dose of Majezik (Majezik) is 200 to 300 mg per day, divided for administration two, three, or four times a day. The largest recommended single dose in a multiple-dose daily regimen is 100 mg.

How supplied

Majezik (Majezik) Tablets are available as follows:

50 mg: white, oval, film-coated, imprinted Majezik (Majezik) 50 mg

Bottles of 2000 NDC 0009-0170-24

100 mg: blue, oval, film-coated, imprinted Majezik (Majezik) 100 mg

Bottles of 100 NDC 0009-0305-03

Bottles of 2000 NDC 0009-0305-30

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

Distributed by: Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, Division of Pfizer Inc, NY, NY 10017. Revised July 2010

Фармакологические свойства

фармакодинамика. Флурбипрофен — НПВП с анальгезирующим эффектом. Механизм действия связан с выраженным угнетением синтеза простагландинов путем ингибирования фермента ЦОГ-1 и -2, что приводит к уменьшению выраженности воспаления, гиперемии, отека и боли.Фармакокинетика. Всасывание. После приема внутрь флурбипрофен быстро и почти полностью всасывается в ЖКТ. Cmax в плазме крови достигается через 1,5 ч после приема однократной дозировки. Прием пищи не влияет на биодоступность лекарства. T½ в среднем составляет 6 ч.Метаболизм. Связывание с белками плазмы крови составляет 99%. Флурбипрофен практически полностью метаболизируется. Выводится препарат как правило с мочой в свободном и связанном виде (20%) и в виде гидроксилированных метаболитов (50%).

Majezik yan etkileri

Yaygın yan etkileri

  • Ağız kuruluğu ve tat almada bozukluk
  • Mide ağrısı ve rahatsızlıkları
  • Mide bulantısı, kusma
  • Kabızlık
  • İshal
  • Halsizlik
  • Baş dönmesi
  • Titreme
  • Huzursuzluk
  • Çarpıntı
  • Kulak çınlaması
  • Döküntü ve kaşıntı gibi hafif alerjik reaksiyon

Bu etkiler dahil başka bir yan etki yaşanır ve kısa sürede geçmezse doktora gidilmelidir. Olası tüm yan etkileri öğrenmek için ilacın kullanma talimatını okumayı ihmal etmeyin.

Ciddi yan etkiler

  • Tehlikeli alerjik reaksiyonlar (nefes darlığı, boğaz-dil şişmesi, kurdeşen)
  • Göğüs ağrısı veya kalp krizi
  • Felç (konuşma bozukluğu ve vücudun bir kısmında güçsüzlük)
  • Mide veya bağırsak kanaması (siyah ya da kanlı dışkı, kanlı veya kahve telvesi gibi görünen kusma)

Yukarıdaki belirtilerden herhangi biri yaşandığında erken müdahale için derhal acil servise gidilmelidir.

Felç veya kalp krizinin görülme olasılığı, ilacın uzun süreli veya yüksek dozlarda kullanımında ve kalp hastalarında daha yüksektir. Mide veya bağırsak kanaması riski ise özellikle yaşlı hastalarda daha fazladır.

Kimler Majezik kullanmamalıdır?

Majezik kullanımının sakıncalı olduğu durum ve rahatsızlıklar şunlardır:

  • İlacın içeriğindeki herhangi bir maddeye ya da aspirin veya başka bir steroid olmayan anti-enflamatuar ilaca karşı bilinen bir alerjik reaksiyon
  • Ağır karaciğer veya böbrek yetmezliği
  • Şiddetli kalp yetmezliği
  • Koroner atardamar bypass cerrahisinden hemen önce ve sonra
  • Peptik ülser
  • Mide-bağırsak kanaması, beyin kanaması ve diğer herhangi bir kanama
  • Geçmişte NSAID kullanımından dolayı mide veya bağırsaklarda kanama veya mide delinmesi
  • 12 yaşından küçük çocuklar

Aşağıdaki sağlık koşullarına sahip olan kişiler ise ilacı dikkatli kullanmalıdır:

  • Yüksek tansiyon
  • Kardiyovasküler rahatsızlıklar (kalp ve kan damarlarıyla ilgili)
  • Kalp yetmezliği ve bu rahatsızlığa bağlı olarak gelişen solunum yetmezliği veya karaciğer büyümesi
  • Ödem
  • Astım
  • Kansızlık
  • Kan pıhtılaşması sorunları
  • Lupus
  • Böbrek fonksiyonlarında bozukluk

Hamilelik ve emzirme döneminde Majezik kullanımı

Hamileliğin 6. ayından itibaren ve emzirme döneminde majezik kesinlikle kullanılmamalıdır. Bu ilaçla tedavi olurken hamile kalanlar ve hamile kalmayı planlayanlar doktoru bilgilendirmelidir. Ayrıca hamileliğin ilk aylarında ise ilaç doktor tarafından reçete edilmedikçe alınmamalıdır.

Endikasyon Bilgisi :

İlacın etken maddesi Flurbiprofen’ dir. MAJEZIK 100 mg Film Tablet, vücutta iltihap ve ağrıya sebep olan hormonları azaltan bir ilaçtır. MAJEZIK, baş ve diş ağrıları, kireçlenme (osteartrit), romatoid artrit ve ankilozan spondilitin sebep olduğu ağrılar ile  bel ağrısı, sırt ağrısı gibi akut kas-iskelet sistemi ağrıları, akut gut artriti ağrıları, eklem çevresindeki yumuşak dokunun iltihabi hastalıklarında (bursit ve tendinit) görülen ağrılar,  yumuşak doku yaralanmaları, ameliyat sonrası ağrıları ve bayanlarda adet dönemi ağrılarının (Dismenore) giderilmesi için kullanılmaktadır.

Osteoartrit (Kireçlenme): Eklemlerde kıkırdak dokunun yapısında bozulma, kıkırdakta incelme, aşınma ve tahribatın ortaya çıktığı bir eklem hastalığıdır.Romatoid artrit: Halk arasında iltihaplı romatizma olarak bilinen esas olarak eklemlerde ağrı, şişlik, tutukluk ve fonksiyon kaybına yol açan, ancak vücuttaki diğer organları da etkileyebilen, yangılı, kronik  bir iltihaplı eklem hastalığıdır.Ankilozan spondilit :Omurlarla kaburgalar arasındaki  eklemler ile omurga, kuyruk sokumu kemiği ve leğen kemiğini birleştiren eklemlerin sertleşmesi, hareket yeteneğinin azalması ya da kaybolmasıyla karakterize ağrılı ilerleyici, iltihaplı romatizmal bir hastalıktır.Akut Gut artriti: Ayak parmaklarında, ayaklarda, ayak bileklerinde, diz, dirsek, ellerde ve el bileklerde ani ağrı nöbetleriyle kendini gösterir. En çok ayak baş parmağını etkileyen bir tür eklem iltihabı olan akut gut artriti, kanda bulunan ürik asit oranının artması nedeniyle meydana gelen bir hastalıktır.

Особые указания

воздействие на ЖКТ. У пациентов с язвой ЖКТ, кровотечениями, перфорацией в анамнезе отмечают увеличенный риск развития осложнений верхних отделов ЖКТ.Воздействие на функцию сердечно-сосудистой системы, АГ и отеки

Из-за риска развития отеков и задержки жидкости препарат надлежит использовать с осторожностью пациентам с сердечной недостаточностью, АГ в анамнезе и пациентам, у которых раньше наблюдались отеки по любой причине.Геморрагические осложнения (кровотечения). Флурбипрофен в дозе 200 мг/сут может пролонгировать кровотечение, поэтому надлежит с осторожностью назначать пациентам с риском развития кровотечения.Воздействие на функцию почек и печени

Надлежит с осторожностью использовать при заболеваниях печени и почек. Пациентов с патологией печени и почек, которые в течение длительного времени используют НПВП, надлежит внимательно обследовать, а также нужно обеспечить постоянное наблюдение в течение терапии препаратом. При возникновении признаков печеночной недостаточности и отклонении от нормы показателей функции печени препарат надлежит отменить.Использование в период беременности и кормления грудью. Использование Мажезик-Сановель у беременных в достаточной мере не изучено, поэтому не предлогается использовать препарат в период беременности. Флурбипрофен не надлежит использовать также и в период кормления грудью, поскольку ингибиторы простагландинов могут вызвать нежелательные эффекты у детей, находящихся на грудном вскармливании.Дети. Флурбипрофен в форме таблеток, покрытых оболочкой, не прописывают детям в возрасте до 15 лет. Дети старше 15 лет используют препарат по схеме для взрослых.Воздействие на скорость реакции при управлении транспортными средствами или работе с механизмами. Исследования относительно влияния лекарства на возможность управлять автомобилем и работать с механизмами не проводили. Но пациенты, у которых появляются головокружение или сонливость после приема лекарства, должны воздержаться от управления транспортными средствами и работы с потенциально опасными механизмами.